A high proportion of COVID-19 HCWs had engaged in night shift-work (75.0% vs. 40.6%) and felt working under pressure (66.7% vs. 32.1%) than uninfected HCWs. SARS-CoV-2 infected HCWs had significantly higher scores of PSQI and NSI than uninfected HCWs (P < 0.001). Specifically, scores of 5 factors (sleep quality, sleep time, sleep efficiency, sleep disorder, and daytime dysfunction) in PSQI were higher among infected HCWs. For NSI, its 5 subscales (nursing profession and work, workload and time allocation, working environment and resources, patient care, management and interpersonal relations) were all higher in infected than uninfected nurse. Furthermore, total scores of PSQI (HR = 2.97, 95%CI = 1.86−4.76; P <0.001) and NSI (HR = 4.67, 95%CI = 1.42−15.45; P = 0.011) were both positively associated with the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our analysis shows that poor sleep quality and higher working pressure may increase the risk of nosocomial SARS-CoV-2 infection among HCWs.