A high proportion of COVID-19 HCWs had engaged in night shift-work (75.0% vs. 40.6%) and felt they were working under pressure (66.7% vs. 32.1%) than uninfected HCWs. COVID-19 HCWs had higher total scores of PSQI and NSI than uninfected HCWs. Furthermore, these scores were both positively associated with COVID-19 risk. An individual-based model (IBM) estimated the outbreak duration among HCWs in a non-typical COVID-19 ward at 62-80 days and the basic reproduction number R0 =1.27 [1.06, 1.61]. By reducing the average contact rate per HCW by a 1.35 factor and susceptibility by a 1.40 factor, we can avoid an outbreak of the basic case among HCWs. Poor sleep quality and high working pressure were positively associated with high risks of COVID-19. A novel IBM of COVID-19 transmission is suitable for simulating different outbreak patterns in a hospital setting.